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His body was then taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise. The most famous member of Young Italy was the revolutionary and general Giuseppe Garibaldi, renowned for his extremely loyal followers, who led the Italian republican drive for unification in Southern Italy. However, the Northern Italy monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Sardinia, whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, also had ambitions of establishing a united Italian state. In the context of the 1848 liberal revolutions that swept through Europe, an unsuccessful first war of independence was declared on Austria.

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  • Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, multi-Tony Award winner Composer and Musicologist Maury Yeston, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale.
  • Lincoln was nominated in Chicago for US president at the 1860 Republican National Convention, which was held in Chicago in a temporary building called the Wigwam.
  • A group of professors at Yale and New Haven Congregationalist ministers articulated a conservative response to the changes brought about by the Victorian culture.
  • London is a major international air transport hub with the busiest city airspace in the world.
  • Most of the city’s high-rise commercial and residential buildings are close to the waterfront.

One of these poets was the notary Giacomo da Lentini, inventor of the sonnet form, though the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the High Renaissance gave rise to a stylised art known as Mannerism. In place of the balanced compositions and rational approach to perspective that characterised art at the dawn of the 16th century, the Mannerists sought instability, artifice, and doubt.

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In most of the inland northern and central regions, the climate ranges from humid subtropical to humid continental and oceanic. The climate of the Po valley geographical region is mostly humid subtropical, with cool winters and hot summers. The coastal areas of Liguria, Tuscany and most of the South generally fit the Mediterranean climate stereotype (Köppen climate classification). The country’s total area is 301,230 square kilometres , of which 294,020 km2 is land and 7,210 km2 is water. Including the islands, Italy has a coastline and border of 7,600 kilometres on the Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas (740 km ), and borders shared with France (488 km ), Austria (430 km ), Slovenia (232 km ) and Switzerland (740 km ). San Marino (39 km ) and Vatican City (3.2 km (2.0 mi)), both enclaves, account for the remainder.

Persian physician Rhazes was one of the first to question the Greek theory of humorism, which nevertheless remained influential in both medieval Western and medieval Islamic medicine. Some volumes of Rhazes’s work Al-Mansuri, namely „On Surgery“ and „A General Book on Therapy“, became part of the medical curriculum in European universities. hotels in patnitop with tariff Additionally, he has been described as a doctor’s doctor, the father of pediatrics, and a pioneer of ophthalmology. For example, he was the first to recognize the reaction of the eye’s pupil to light. In many cases these materials were used ritually as magical substances by priests, shamans, or medicine men. Well-known spiritual systems include animism , spiritualism ; shamanism ; and divination .

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The City of London, its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the Romans as Londinium and retains boundaries close to its medieval ones. Since the 19th century, the name „London“ has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between the counties of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, which largely comprises Greater London, governed by the Greater London Authority. The City of Westminster, to the west of the City of London, has for centuries held the national government and parliament. The Armistice of Villa Giusti, which ended fighting between Italy and Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, resulted in Italian annexation of neighbouring parts of Yugoslavia. During the interwar period, the fascist Italian government undertook a campaign of Italianisation in the areas it annexed, which suppressed Slavic language, schools, political parties, and cultural institutions. Between 1922 and the beginning of World War II, the affected people were also the German-speaking and Ladin-speaking populations of Trentino-Alto Adige, and the French- and Arpitan-speaking regions of the western Alps, such as the Aosta valley.

An investment programme is attempting to reduce congestion and improve reliability, including £6.5 billion (€7.7 billion) spent before the 2012 Summer Olympics. The Docklands Light Railway , which opened in 1987, is a second, more local metro system using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve the Docklands, Greenwich and Lewisham. London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in 2015 was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits. It is also the top city in the world by visitor cross-border spending, estimated at US$20.23 billion in 2015. Tourism is one of London’s prime industries, employing 700,000 full-time workers in 2016, and contributes £36 billion a year to the economy. As of 2016 London was the world top city destination as ranked by TripAdvisor users.

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Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into eighteen terminal stations, with the exception of the Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north and Brighton in the south via Luton and Gatwick airports. London has Britain’s busiest station by number of passengers—Waterloo, with over 184 million people using the interchange station complex each year. Clapham Junction is the busiest station in Europe by the number of trains passing. The region covers 610 square miles , giving a population density of 13,410 inhabitants per square mile (5,177/km2) more than ten times that of any other British region.

Italy was ranked 29th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, up from 30th in 2019. In the European migrant crisis of the 2010s, Italy was the entry point and leading destination for most asylum seekers entering the EU. From 2013 to 2018, the country took in over 700,000 migrants and refugees, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa, which caused strain on the public purse and a surge in the support for far-right or euro-sceptic political parties. The 2018 general election was characterised by a strong showing of the Five Star Movement and the League and the university professor Giuseppe Conte became the Prime Minister at the head of a populist coalition between these two parties. However, after only fourteen months the League withdrew its support to Conte, who formed a new unprecedented government coalition between the Five Star Movement and the centre-left. The country gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the „Big Four“ top Allied powers.

The University of Illinois College of Medicine at UIC is the second largest medical school in the United States (2,600 students including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana–Champaign). The Port of Chicago consists of several major port facilities within the city of Chicago operated by the Illinois International Port District . The central element of the Port District, Calumet Harbor, is maintained by the U.S. Chicago is served by O’Hare International Airport, the world’s busiest airport measured by airline operations, on the far Northwest Side, and Midway International Airport on the Southwest Side.